Articles tagged with: Diabetic Retinopathy

Ocular Manifestations Of Sleep Apnea

Ocular Manifestations Of Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is a systemic disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep, usually with 10 to 60 second interruptions. “Apnea” is Greek for “without breath.” Each pause in breathing is an “apnea”, and each low breathing event is referred to as a hypopnea. When oxygen saturation in the blood drops below a critical level, the brain signals the body to “wake up” and take a deep breath, thus preventing deep sleep. While seemingly innocuous and more annoying to the bed partner than the patient (the sufferer is almost never aware during sleep), sleep apnea represents a genuine threat to both systemic and ocular health because of the associated compromise of oxygen flow to end organs.

Pycnogenol® For Diabetes Mellitus

Biologic Rationale And Evidence

Pycnogenol® For Diabetes Mellitus

Pycnogenol® is a patented extract of bark from the French maritime pine tree, Pinus pinaster, subspecies Atlanticus des Villar. Ingestion and topical application of pine bark and needle preparations for medicinal purposes dates back several centuries, with the first described use by the French explorer Jacques Cartier as a remedy for his scurvy afflicted crew on the St Lawrence River near Quebec in 15351. Nearly four centuries later, the French researcher, Jacques Masquelier isolated an ascorbate-enhancing flavanol (polyphenolic antioxidant containing catechins) he called oligoprocyanidin2 (OPC) from French Maritime Pine and patented the extraction process, later dubbing the end product Pycnogenol®.

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