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Atlas: Retina-Choroid

Larry J Alexander OD FAAO Monday, 04 November 2013

EYELESSONS.COM Disclaimer: The content provided herein is for educational and informational purposes only; nothing provided herein should be intended to create a physician-patient relationship or an offer for a contract and does not constitute medical diagnosis or advice. The opinion relating to a review of any issue presented or discussed is the sole responsibility of the healthcare provider or medical advisor. The doctor or patient must assume all liability, including, but not limited to, any direct, indirect, incidental, consequential, or any other monetary or other damages, or liabilities arising out of or relating in any way to the content  or information provided herein. 

Retinal Anatomy

Legend (normal retina)

  1. internal limiting membrane
  2. retinal nerve fiber layer (rnfl)
  3. ganglion cell layer
  4. inner plexiform layer
  5. inner nuclear layer
  6. outer plexiform layer
  7. outer nuclear layer
  8. photoreceptor is/os boundary –referred to by some as the photoreceptor integrity line
  9. retinal pigment epithelium/bruch’s membrane complex
  10. superficial retinal blood vessel casting a shadow

Congenital Retinal Variations and Dystrophies

Epiretinal Membranes and Vitreoretinal Traction

Variations of Macular Holes

Intraretinal Cystic Edema Variations... Multiple Causes

Neurosensory Retinal Detachment Variations

Retinal Pigment Epithelial Defect Variations

Choroid and RPE Disease

Retinal Vascular Disease


About the Author(s)

Larry J Alexander OD FAAO

Larry J Alexander OD FAAO

Dr. Alexander (1948-2016) was a 1971 graduate of Indiana University School of Optometry. He served in the US Navy then served as a Professor at the University of Alabama Birmingham School of Optometry. Larry contributed to a number of chapters in textbooks and has published three editions of Primary Care of the Posterior Segment, as well as contributed to the professional literature. He also lectured extensively in the area of ocular and systemic disease. His areas of special interest included dysfunctional tear syndrome, glaucoma and macular degeneration.  His lessons are the basis for this site and he will be dearly missed. 

Comments (13)

  • Allen Blume

    18 November 2013 at 17:02 | #

    Larry - phenomenal piece of work - I truly enjoy this site & am deeply indebted to you for all your expertise & work - thanks a million - best wishes to you & Lynn for a great Thanksgiving - Allen


  • Sandra Young

    18 November 2013 at 17:03 | #

    This atlas has unbeatable photography with a wealth of easily accessible information. Amazing!


  • Dan Roberts

    18 November 2013 at 17:12 | #

    This is an excellent resource for helping me explain conditions and interpret diagnostic reports for my clients. Thank you!


  • Marlene McKenzie

    18 November 2013 at 17:44 | #

    Thank you Larry - this meant a lot to me - new to OCT - helps a lot!

    Kind regards


  • Stephen Cohen

    18 November 2013 at 17:54 | #

    Thank you, Larry! This is a wonderful resource. Your efforts are greatly appreciated.

    Steve Cohen


  • Maurice Zadeh

    18 November 2013 at 18:13 | #

    This a wonderful and extremely useful information. I just started using OCT in my office and cannot tell you how timely and helpful these photos are.

    I glad to see you hard at work after so many years.

    Thanks again and hope all is well with you. look for ward to catching up with you at a regional meeting soon!


  • neil boderman

    18 November 2013 at 18:36 | #

    Loved it... any examples of plaquinal retinapathy?


  • Dwayne Yeager

    19 November 2013 at 01:45 | #

    Awesome photos - What a great resource!!!


  • Mel Cleveland

    27 November 2013 at 21:09 | #

    Great work my friend.


  • Jack Schaeffer

    27 November 2013 at 22:54 | #

    This is great!!!


  • William Cox

    23 January 2014 at 22:17 | #

    The Optovue is everything you said it is! And I even get free lessons from a friend and mentor--Fantastic. Thanks, Larry, -Fred


  • Arti Shah

    02 March 2014 at 22:58 | #

    This is awesome! Please keep this website going especially with information on OCT. You have a wealth of information here! Thank you Larry


  • Jerrold Russell

    22 February 2015 at 19:44 | #

    I recommend this resource , relevant, clinically useful.


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